Global Indicators of Regulatory Governance

Public Consultation in Rulemaking

Citizen access to the government rulemaking process is central for the fostering trust in the state and ultimate adherence to the new regulations. It is also a key part of business environments in which investors make long-range plans and investments. Greater levels of consultation are associated with a higher quality of regulation.

For the Global Indicators of Regulatory Governance, the team asked government officials and the private sector whether notifications of proposed regulations were accompanied by stakeholder consultations, and if so, how. Answers ranged from online solicitation of comments to public meetings, closed-door sessions seeking the input of specific individuals, and no consultations at all.

 

Economy Regulatory agencies solicit comments on proposed regulations from the general public On a unified website for all proposed regulations On the website of the relevant ministry or regulator Through public meetings Through targeted outreach to stakeholders Ministries or regulatory agencies report on the results of the consultation Government prepares one consolidated response Government provides customized responses to certain audiences or stakeholders
Afghanistan No No No No No No No No
Albania Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Algeria No No No No No No No No
Angola No No No No No No No No
Antigua and Barbuda Yes No No No Yes No No No
Argentina Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Armenia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Australia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Austria Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No
Azerbaijan Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Bahamas, The Yes No No No Yes No No No
Bahrain No No No No No No No No
Bangladesh Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Barbados Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Belarus Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Belgium Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Belize Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Benin Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Bhutan Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No
Bolivia Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No
Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Botswana Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Brazil Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Brunei Darussalam No No No No No No No No
Bulgaria Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Burkina Faso No No No No No No No No
Burundi Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Cabo Verde No No No No No No No No
Cambodia Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Cameroon Yes No No No Yes No No No
Canada Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Central African Republic No No No No No No No No
Chad No No No No No No No No
Chile Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No
China Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No
Colombia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Comoros Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Congo, Dem. Rep. No No No No No No No No
Congo, Rep. No No No No No No No No
Costa Rica Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Côte d'Ivoire Yes No No No Yes No No No
Croatia Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No
Cyprus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Czech Republic Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Denmark Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Djibouti Yes No No No No No No No
Dominica Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Dominican Republic Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No
Ecuador No No No No No No No No
Egypt, Arab Rep. Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
El Salvador No No No No No No No No
Eritrea No No No No No No No No
Estonia Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Eswatini Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Ethiopia No No No No No No No No
European Union Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Fiji Yes No No Yes No No No No
Finland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
France Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Gabon No No No No No No No No
Gambia, The Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes
Georgia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Germany Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Ghana Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Greece Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Grenada Yes No No No Yes No No No
Guatemala No No No No No No No No
Guinea No No No No No No No No
Guinea-Bissau No No No No No No No No
Guyana No No No No No No No No
Haiti No No No No No No No No
Honduras No No No No No No No No
Hong Kong SAR, China Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Hungary Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
Iceland Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
India Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Indonesia Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Iran, Islamic Rep. No No No No No No No No
Iraq Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Ireland Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Israel Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Italy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Jamaica Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Japan Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No
Jordan Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No
Kazakhstan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Kenya Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Kiribati No No No No No No No No
Korea, Rep. Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No
Kosovo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Kuwait No No No No No No No No
Kyrgyz Republic Yes Yes No No No No No No
Lao PDR Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No
Latvia Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Lebanon Yes No No No Yes No No No
Lesotho No No No No No No No No
Liberia No No No No No No No No
Libya No No No No No No No No
Lithuania Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No
Luxembourg Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Macedonia, FYR Yes Yes No No No No No No
Madagascar No No No No No No No No
Malawi Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Malaysia Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No
Mali No No No No No No No No
Malta Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Marshall Islands Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Mauritania No No No No No No No No
Mauritius Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Mexico Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Moldova Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Mongolia Yes No Yes No No No Yes No
Montenegro Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
Morocco Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No
Mozambique Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Myanmar Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Namibia Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nepal No No No No No No No No
Netherlands Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
New Zealand Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nicaragua Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes
Niger Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Nigeria Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No
Norway Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Oman No No No No No No No No
Pakistan Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Palau Yes No No No Yes No No No
Panama Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Papua New Guinea Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Paraguay Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Peru Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Philippines Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Poland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Portugal Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
Puerto Rico (U.S.) No No No No No No No No
Qatar No No No No No No No No
Romania Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Russian Federation Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Rwanda Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Samoa No No No No No No No No
San Marino Yes No No No Yes No No No
São Tomé and Príncipe No No No No No No No No
Saudi Arabia Yes No No No No No No No
Senegal Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Serbia Yes No No Yes No Yes No No
Seychelles No No No No No No No No
Sierra Leone Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes
Singapore Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Slovak Republic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Slovenia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Solomon Islands Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
South Africa Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
South Sudan No No No No No No No No
Spain Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Sri Lanka No No No No No No No No
St. Kitts and Nevis No No No No No No No No
St. Lucia Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No
St. Vincent and the Grenadines Yes No No No Yes No No No
Sudan Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No
Suriname No No No No No No No No
Sweden Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Switzerland Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No
Syrian Arab Republic No No No No No No No No
Taiwan, China Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Tajikistan Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tanzania No No No No No No No No
Thailand Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Timor-Leste Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Togo Yes No No No Yes No No No
Tonga Yes No No No Yes No No No
Trinidad and Tobago No No No No No No No No
Tunisia Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Turkey Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Uganda Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
Ukraine Yes No No No Yes No No No
United Arab Emirates Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No
United Kingdom Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
United States Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No
Uruguay Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No
Uzbekistan Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Vanuatu No No No No No No No No
Vietnam Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
West Bank and Gaza No No No No No No No No
Yemen, Rep. No No No No No No No No
Zambia Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Zimbabwe Yes No No Yes Yes No No No