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Reforms

The Global Indicators of Regulatory Governance project finds that 22 countries have improved their regulatory governance framework since 2014. The reforms listed here had a positive impact on at least one of components measured by the project.

Click on a country name below to see details.

  •  Belarus

    On January 1, 2015 the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union came into force in Belarus. Under this Treaty, draft regulatory legal acts are now published 30 calendar days on a ministry website and opened for comments. These drafts include explanation of the purpose of the proposed regulation and how it will be implemented. Finally, the government must establish mechanisms for responding to these comments.

  •  China

    In 2015, China introduced a reform improving the public's ability to voice opinions during the rulemaking process. Public hearings are now necessary when there is a large split of opinions among stakeholders or when the proposed regulation would present a fundamental change to established interests. The reform requires the government to solicit opinions from affected residents, representatives of relevant groups, departments, social organizations and industry professionals.

  •  Colombia

    In 2015, Colombia introduced a new framework on regulatory impact assessments for the trade sector (Decree 1595).

  •  Croatia

    In April 2015, Croatia launched "e-Consultations", a central portal for consultations with the public on proposed laws and regulations. Amendments to the Law on Right to Access to Information in July 2015 require state bodies to publish a draft law or regulation on "e-Consultations", usually for the period of 30 days, along with the reasons for their adoption, as well as the goals that will be achieved by this consultation. After the consultation is conducted, the state bodies are now obliged to inform the interested public on the accepted and rejected comments via the website.

  •  Estonia

    In Estonia, since the Spring of 2015 and for the first time, the Coalition Agreement directly states that the government will avoid overregulation and follow an ultima ratio ("last resort") principle in its regulatory activity. The Minister of Justice followed the coalition statement in August 2015 with a new Better Regulation Program. Under it, all existing reporting obligations for citizens and businesses are being critically assessed in order to simplify reporting and cut back on the administrative burden.

  •  European Union

    Among numerous reforms undertaken in 2015/16, the European Commission adopted a Better Regulation Package. This package consolidates and further strengthens the Commission's planning, consultation, evaluation and impact assessment procedures. Specifically:

    • The Commission committed itself to listen more closely to citizens and stakeholders and be open to their feedback at every stage of the process – from the first idea, to when the Commission makes a proposal, through to the adoption of legislation and its evaluation.
    • New, integrated Better Regulation Guidelines were issued covering the full policy cycle (from preparation, adoption, implementation, application to evaluation and revision of the initiatives). A Better Regulation Toolbox provides detailed and technical information.
    • The European Commission established the REFIT platform to conduct an ongoing dialogue with member states and stakeholders on improving EU legislation.
    • A Regulatory Scrutiny Board was established to examine and issue opinions on all Commission's draft impact assessments, major evaluations and "fitness checks" of existing legislation. It replaced the Impact Assessment Board in July 2015 and is independent of the policy-making departments.
    • In December 2015, the European Commission, Parliament and Council agreed on a new Inter-institutional Agreement (IIA) on Better Law-Making to improve the quality and the results of European legislation. The agreement was signed and entered into force on 13 April 2016.
  •  Finland

    In January 2016, the government of Finland adopted the renewed Consultation Guidelines for Legislative Drafting. A separate annex, including a toolkit on consultation for law drafters, was published at the same time. Additionally, a new internet tool for collecting statements electronically has been published (www.lausuntopalvelu.fi). Finally, the Prime Minister's Office established the Legislation Evaluation Council in February 2016 to evaluate the quality of impact assessment in draft bills.

  •  Georgia

    In February 2016, the government of Georgia adopted a Resolution (№ 37) under which draft laws must be published for comments two weeks before submission to the parliament. These draft laws are published on the online Legislative Herald (www.matsne.gov.ge). While this resolution sets a legal framework for publication of drafts, it was already the established practice in Georgia to do so.

  •  Germany

    In December 2015 the Federal Government of Germany launched a central website. There, visitors can be directed to the websites of the individual ministries in order to review and comment on those ministries' regulatory initiatives. (https://www.bundesregierung.de/Webs/Breg/DE/Service/GesetzesvorhabenBundesregierung/_node.html)

  •  Iraq

    Since 2015, the Iraqi parliament now publishes the text of proposed laws and regulations on its official website, http://www.parliament.iq/.

  •  Kazakhstan
    In October 2015, Kazakhstan passed new requirements for regulatory impact analyses in Chapter 13 of the Entrepreneurial Code (EC). The EC outlines the legal, economic and social environment and guarantees for doing business. It also sets out the state regulation and support of business activities in Kazakhstan.
  •  Kosovo

    In 2014 and 2015, the government of Kosovo adopted the Better Regulation Strategy 2014-2020. This strategy contains guidance for improving regulatory impact assessments as part of the policy development process. The government also adopted Administrative Instruction No. 03/2015 on Budget Impact Assessment of New Government Initiatives (https://gzk.rks-gov.net/ActDetail.aspx?ActID=10867) requiring a detailed impact assessment on the budget of the Republic of Kosovo before passage.

  •  Lithuania

    In 2015, the Government of the Republic of Lithuania introduced a new web page. All citizens can find the special field called "E.citizen" created for better communication with public and information sharing about public consultations (https://epilietis.lrv.lt/en/).

    In addition, the 2014 Law on the Basics of Legislation required all laws and acts applying the laws (decisions, resolutions and court rulings) to be registered and officially published in the Register of Legal Acts. It also establishes the right of all individuals to submit proposals for legislative initiatives and legislative projects, and requires impact assessments for every new initiative to regulate non-regulated areas or when regulation is changed substantially.

  •  Mexico

    In January 2015, the Government of Mexico issued a Decree on the Comprehensive Strategy for Regulatory Improvement and Simplification of Procedures and Services. The Decree established new channels for public consultation, created programs to develop forward regulatory plans (Agenda Regulatoria) and put in place new efforts to simplify the current regulatory framework.

  •  Morocco

    In March 2015, the Government of Morocco adopted Organic Law (№ 065-13) on the organization and conduct of the government. Article 19 introduced regulatory impact assessments into Moroccan law, although the conditions and details of such assessments will need to be determined by future regulation.

  •  Romania

    In Romania, three pilot impact assessment studies were conducted under the coordination of Prime Minister's Chancellery in order to test the new regulatory impact guidelines developed in 2015.

  •  South Africa

    In South Africa, since the Cabinet resolution of October 1, 2015, it is now compulsory to subject any proposed regulation to socio-economic impact assessment (SEIAS).

  •  Spain

    In 2015, Spain adopted a new law (Law 40) governing the formation of new regulations. Law 40 requires annual forward regulatory plans and the evaluation reports of approved regulations to be made publicly available. It also establishes a wider scope of regulatory impact assessments to include competitiveness, market unity and SMEs analyses. And finally, Law 40 sets in place a new process for pre-consultation with the public on regulatory initiatives.

  •  Switzerland

    In Switzerland, the law on official publications was partially modified. Since January 1, 2016, publications are now made publicly available on a central internet platform and the electronic version prevails (https://www.admin.ch/gov/fr/accueil/droit-federal/recueil-systematique.html).

  •  United Kingdom

    In the United Kingdom, the Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 converted a number of existing rules for rulemaking within the UK's better regulation framework into a legislative requirement. In addition, it also introduced some new requirements. Specifically, the legislation:

    • Introduced a requirement on the government to set a Business Impact Target for the economic effect of rules coming into effect, or that cease to have effect during a certain Parliamentary period, affecting business activities;
    • Introduced a duty on government ministers to publish what that target is and periodic reports on progress towards meeting that target (including a list of measures with a monetary value that scores towards that target, and an assessment of how each government department has contributed to it);
    • Put into law the requirement for an independent body to verify the costs and benefits of rules, and for that body to verify all of the costs of measures that score towards the Business Impact Target). The existing body in the UK that scrutinizes impact assessments—the Regulatory Policy Committee—was designated as the verification body;
    • Converted the existing rule to review regulatory provisions into a legal duty and to publish reports setting out conclusions of a review. Reviews must be carried out within a 5 year period after commencement of new rules, and every five years thereafter;
    • A new duty for the government to report to parliament annually actions it has taken to mitigate disproportionate regulatory burdens on small and micro-businesses. Additional details are at http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/26/contents/enacted.
  •  Uzbekistan

    In Uzbekistan, Presidential Decree of July 4, 2014 (№ UP-4609) makes it unlawful to apply penalties to businesses for violation of legal acts that are not published on the official websites.

  •  Vietnam

    In Vietnam, a new Law on Laws that came into force on July 1, 2016 (№ 85/2015/QH1). It makes regulatory impact assessments mandatory for all types of legal documents, including those issued by local provincial People’s committee. These assessments must be prepared in the early stages of the proposed rulemaking. In addition, public consultation is now mandatory for all draft regulations. All draft regulations are required to be published on the website of the government and relevant ministry for public comments for at least 60 days before passage.

  •  Zambia

    In Zambia, the Enactment of the Business Regulatory Act № 3 of 2014 established the Business Regulatory Review Committee (BRRC) and the Business Regulatory Review Agency (BRRA). The Act introduced a set of principles, procedures and minimum requirements for the introduction of new regulatory measures. Specifically, the new law provides that a public body shall only submit to Cabinet for approval a policy or proposed law to regulate business activity if the policy or proposed law has the prior approval of the BRRA. The regulating body must also conduct a regulatory impact assessment on the proposed intervention which is submitted to the BRRA for review and approval.